An Introduction to the Keto Diet

tra gli adulti ospedalizzati. Ulteriori informazioni:

Perhaps many of you know that the body is counting on three main macro nutrients as fuel source such as the carbohydrates, protein, and fats. Mainly, the carbohydrates and fats are the primary energy sources, and the protein is utilised as well but in lesser degree.

However, once in the blood stream these macro nutrients get processed and they are broken down to their simplest building blocks, in other words carbohydrates are broken down to glucose, fats to fatty acids, and protein to amino acids.

Dieta Paleo: mangiare come un uomo delle caverne e perdere peso?

Obesità - Un rischio maggiore di gravità COVID-19 ?

Usually prior to starting the diet, the body should be in fasted state for 1-2 days. This type of diet is used for therapeutically purposes, and strict control and calorie consumption monitoring is required. When used therapeutically, most people see effects after 2-3 months after its start.

Looking at Keto diet used in sports, its important to mention that there are many variations of the Keto diet and this type of diet is recommended to replace the medium-high carbohydrate consumption, in order to improve sporting performance.

In another research where keto diet was used by artistic gymnasts for 30 days, there is no difference in power output, but decreased weight loss and lower bodyfat % is observed (Paoli et, al., 2012). Most of the scientific data suggest that Keto diet has the following identical outcomes such as:

  • Low carbohydrate or ketogenic diet regimen can help the improvement of the body composition mainly through weight loss and the excess fats, but its not optimal for building muscle mass
  • When optimal sporting performance is pursued, including aerobic and anaerobic physical activity, it is necessary to consume atleast moderate quantity of carbohydrates.

To conclude this, it is important to state that the most important aspect of following a diet regime is to find out the most convenient, delicious and healthy way to adhere in order to achieve the desired goals.


Paoli, A., Grimaldi, K., D’Agostino, D., Cenci, L., Moro, T., Bianco, A., & Palma, A. (2012). Ketogenic diet does not affect strength performance in elite artistic gymnasts. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition, 9(1), 1-9.

Zajac, A., Poprzecki, S., Maszczyk, A., Czuba, M., Michalczyk, M., & Zydek, G. (2014). The effects of a ketogenic diet on exercise metabolism and physical performance in off-road cyclists. Nutrients, 6(7), 2493-2508.

Gym 101: Progressive Overload

Federazione mondiale dell'obesità. 2021. 

Qual è il principio del sovraccarico progressivo?                                                                                         

Il libro delle donne: una guida alla nutrizione, alla perdita di grasso e al guadagno muscolare

  • Intensity:

You can manipulate the intensity of the exercise by increasing the weight/resistance. Heavier weights or an increased resistance will over time lead to an adaptation by your muscles, connective tissue, bone and nervous system. In other words you will get bigger and stronger!

  • Volume (aka Sets & Reps) :

  • Tempo:

  • Frequency:

This is basically how often you work out in a given time. Let’s say if you work out 3 times a week, then an additional 4th

  • Exercise Variety


Kraemer, W.J., Ratamess, N.A. & French, D.N. Resistance training for health and performance. Curr Sports Med Rep 1, 165–171 (2002).

Aydin Parmaksizoglu

A Further Look Into Hydration In Sport and Exercise


Consensus Statement (2004) IOC consensus statement on sports nutrition 2003. Journal of Sports Sciences 22: x 

Coyle EF (2004) Fluid and fuel intake during exercise. Journal of Sports Sciences 22: 39– 55.

Lee JKW, Shirreffs SM & Maughan RJ (2008b) Cold drink ingestion improves exercise endurance capacity in the heat. Medicine and Science in Sport and Exercise 40: 1637– 44.

Shirreffs SM, Armstrong LE & Cheuvront SN (2004) Fluid and electrolyte needs for preparation and recovery from training and competition. Journal of Sports Sciences 22: 57– 63.

Shirreffs, S. M. (2009). Hydration in sport and exercise: water, sports drinks and other drinks. Nutrition bulletin, 34(4), 374-379.

Sleep: More Important Than You Think!

Sleep: More important than you think!

Since alcohol is not considered to be an ergogenic aid unlike caffeine it is suggested that athletes should either completely avoid alcohol use or stop its consumption 3-4 hours before sleep time. And that is because contrary to common perception of alcohol as a sleep aid, literature in this field claims alcohol to have a noticeable negative impact on sleep.

An Introduction to Core

rectus abdominis, oblques, erecor spinae, and hip muscles.

However, there are more muscles that are smaller and are located deeper than the larger muscles which normally don’t produce a lot of movement, they only contract statically in order to stabilize the spine during upper or lower body movements. Such muscles include transversus abdominis(TA), piriformis, pelvic floor, multifidi and other muscles in the hip and core. These muscles are divided into global (larger movable) muscles and local (static contracting) muscles.

mutifidi muscles which assist with the spine rotation and extension, which control the motion between adjacent vertebrae. It is suggested that in order to engage the multifidi is related to the ability to contract the TA.




Liebenson, C. (2003). Functional “Core” Workout. Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies, 7(1), 22-24.

Core strength training for patients with chronic low back pain. Journal of Physical Therapy Science (2015, 

Strength Training From Home

Skipping is a great workout that can be done at home

Pull-up bars can also be purchased for home use


Azevedo, A. M., Petiot, G. H., Clemente, F. M., Nakamura, F. Y., & Aquino, R. (2020). Home training recommendations for soccer players during the COVID-19 pandemic.

Harrison, J. S. (2010). Bodyweight training: A return to basics. Strength & Conditioning Journal32(2), 52-55.

Mutz, M., & Gerke, M. (2020). Sport and exercise in times of self-quarantine: how Germans changed their behaviour at the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic. International Review for the Sociology of Sport, 1012690220934335.

Lipecki, K., & Rutowicz, B. (2015). The impact of ten weeks of bodyweight training on the level of physical fitness and selected parameters of body composition in women aged 21-23 years. Polish Journal of Sport and Tourism22(2), 64-68.

Posture: Look Good, Feel Good!

Before we move on, let’s understand what good posture is, and how it can help us improve the quality of our lifes.

Good posture helps you in the following ways ( :

  • Keeps bones and joints in the correct position (alignment) so that muscles are being used properly.
  • Helps cut down on the wear and tear of joint surfaces (such as the knee) to help prevent the onset of arthritis.
  • Decreases the strain on the ligaments in the spine.
  • Prevents the spine from becoming fixed in abnormal positions.
  • Prevents fatigue because muscles are being used more efficiently, which allows the body to use less energy.
  • Prevents backache and muscular pain.

And let’s move on to the little details that you can work on and that will have a positive impact on your posture in the long run:

  • Stand up tall. Hold your head straight and tuck in your chin. Keep your shoulders back, knees straight, and belly tucked in. Your ears should be over the middle of your shoulders. Try to stand as tall as possible (Do not tiptoe! That’s cheating!)

Aydin Parmaksizoglu

Band Training For Bodybuilding During Lockdown,2016).

Unfortunately for bodybuilders and for the people who love this sport, most of the competitions were cancelled or reschedule due to pandemic situations and new decisions were made by the competent authorities. (IFBB, 2020). As a result, this will be a stressful and hard period for professional bodybuilders leading up to the end of the year.

‘Make it Happen’ – Michael Jordan


I don’t think any athlete or coach put a “covid-19 lockdown” phase in their calendar when planning for 2020. We can no longer practice exactly how we used to we don’t know when we will be able to again but we can adapt.

If you picked up an injury mid-season you’d adapt and find other ways to get in the training – use that same mentality now. It is simply adjusting your routine and making it happen.

Don’t think too long term, stay present. Work in 7-day time frames. Invest time in putting together weekly plans, Monday through to Sunday and stick to it. If you haven’t watched The Last Dance on Netflix, make that a priority for this week!

Above all, use this time to reflect, clear your mind and reset goals as with solitude comes great power. Find out for yourself:

What brings you energy?

What brings you peace?

What motivates you?

What are you grateful for?

and write it down.